Side effects are an undesirable reality that can occur from any medication or treatment. As you consider your cancer treatment options, you will likely discuss the possible side effects of each one with your doctor. Which side effects you experience, as well as their severity, depend on many factors, like your overall health, the type of cancer being treated, the location of the cancer, which medication is being used and how it is given to you.
Although you can’t control which side effects you will get, there are ways to help ease some of the symptoms that you might experience.
Cancer treatments and possible side effects*
Chemotherapy works by attacking the rapidly-growing cancer cells.These medications travel throughout the body and can also damage healthy cells, leading to unwanted side effects.
Some common side effects of chemotherapy are fatigue, anemia, hair loss, nausea and vomiting, changes in appetite, bruising, bleeding, infections, constipation or diarrhea, changes to your skin and nails, weight loss or changes in mood. You might also experience problems with your mouth, throat, nerves, muscles, bladder or kidneys.
Sometimes, a side effect you may be experiencing can be a sign of a more serious issue. Ask your healthcare professional if there are any symptoms that you should look out for or report right away.
Flu-like symptoms, such as fever, chills, weakness, nausea, diarrhea, body aches or fatigue are common side effects of cancer immunotherapy.
Some immunotherapy drugs can give you a rash and make your skin itchy. This can happen during your treatment and may last after treatment. Speak with your healthcare professional if you experience these skin changes. They can suggest creams or prescribe medicines to help relieve the itchiness.
Radiation can damage healthy cells in the treatment area, resulting in side effects. Which side effects a person experiences will depend on which part of the body is being treated.
In addition to side effects that are specific to a particular body part, some general side effects of radiation can include fatigue, anemia, hair loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, skin changes and reactions or low blood cell counts. Fertility problems, heart or lung problems, osteoporosis or second cancers are side effects that may appear long after your treatment has been completed.
Side effects are possible following any surgery. Some of the side effects that you may experience after having surgery for cancer are sore throat, pain, nausea and vomiting, bleeding, infection, blood clotting, nerve pain or damage, scarring, swelling, stomach problems or lung problems.
Shock is a serious side effect that can happen during or following surgery. It is also possible to experience a reaction to the anesthetic that is used during your surgery.
Tips to cope with common side effects
Fatigue is a common side effect of many treatment options. To help reduce fatigue, you can:
- Take several short rests or naps throughout the day
- Do some light exercise, like going for a walk
- Reduce physically-intense activities
- Let you or someone else help with any tiring tasks, such as housework or trips to the grocery store
Hair loss can be an upsetting side effect of cancer treatment. Not only is it a dramatic physical change, but it is also a constant visual reminder to you and others of your battle with cancer. To try to reduce hair loss while undergoing therapy, wash your hair less frequently and avoid using harsh tools (such as hot irons, brushes or hair dryers) or treatments (such as hair dyes, perms or bleaches). Sleep on a satin pillowcase.
If you do lose your hair, protect your scalp with sunscreen or by wearing a hat when you go outdoors. Sunglasses can be worn to protect your eyes if your lashes or eyebrows fall out.
If you think you might want to wear a wig or toupee, pick one out before your hair falls out so that you can match it as closely as possible to your natural hair. Speak with your provincial or private insurance provider to find out if you are eligible for financial coverage of this purchase.
Properly managing nausea and vomiting is important to avoid dehydration, loss of appetite and fatigue. It can also help improve your quality of life as you undergo treatment. In addition to taking an antinausea medication, here are some other tips to help reduce the severity of symptoms:
- Try to avoid eating right before or after your treatment
- Don’t get hungry: eat snacks, such as crackers, toast, dry cereal or yogourt, every few hours
- Avoid foods with strong smells or flavours
- Stick to clear fluids, and take small sips throughout the day
- Try to distract yourself by talking with a loved one
- Breathing exercises, biofeedback, meditation or acupuncture can be helpful
Flu-like symptoms, such as fever, chills, weakness, nausea, diarrhea, body aches or fatigue are common side effects of cancer immunotherapy. Rest and medication, such as acetaminophen, can be useful in managing these symptoms
* Comparative clinical significance has not been established.